According to the constitution, the Grand Duke holds the executive power and assures the execution of the laws by taking the necessary regulations. In practice, however, this task is performed by the government, which consists of a Prime minister and several members having the title of minister, minister delegate or secretary of State. The government is currently chaired by Xavier Bettel.
The formation of the government
The text of the Constitution gives the Grand Duke the absolute freedom to chose the members of his government. Nevertheless, the democratic principle requires that the ministers not only have his confidence, but also that of the parliament's majority, being a minimum of 31 out of 60 deputies.
Therefore, the Grand Duke respects the results of the legislative elections by designating a Prime minister, who takes care to compose a government and a government program which will meet the accession of the parliamentary majority.
Duties and functioning of the Government
As a body of the executive power, the government possesses overall power to manage public affairs and is in charge of upholding the laws, regulations, decrees and public order. Every member of the government is head of one or several ministerial departments to which he/she assumes leadership.
In addition to its executive duties, the government also has the right of initiative in legislative affairs, called 'government initiative', which allows it to present draft legislations to parliament. (Chambre des députés)
The members of the government meet on a weekly basis in the Government Council in order to deliberate on all the items on the agenda. All matters submitted to the Grand Duke must be deliberated beforehand at the Government Council. The Government Council also discusses bills that are tabled in the Chamber of Deputies.
Furthermore, the government manages the state's income and expenditure budget, which is voted annually.
The Government Bettel-Kersch-Bausch
The government resulting from the general election held on 14 October 2018 is a coalition government involving the Democratic Party (DP), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP) and the Greens (déi gréng), under the leadership of Xavier Bettel (DP).
The government was sworn in on 5 December 2018. It comprises:
- One Prime Minister;
- Two Deputy Prime Ministers;
- 14 members bearing the title of Minister.
On 11 December, Xavier Bettel, Prime Minister, Minister of State, presented the government declaration to Parliament. This programme sets the broad political lines that the government will follow in the current legislative period.
The next legislative elections are going to take place in 2023.