The electoral system In Luxembourg, the Chamber of Deputies (Parliament) and municipal councils are elected periodically by secret ballot.

According to its constitution, Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy in the form of a constitutional monarchy. At the national level, members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected every five years using the system of proportional representation. The vote is secret, and voting is compulsory for everyone on the electoral roll. At the municipal level, elections are organised every six years. Voting in these elections is also compulsory. Foreign citizens can participate as voters (active voting right) or candidates (passive voting right) under certain conditions.

Luxembourg is a democratic state, in which political officeholders are legitimised through free, general and secret ballot elections. This takes place through the elections of the Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des députés), municipal elections and European elections. In addition, national referendums can be held to consult the country's population on certain issues. Universal suffrage was first introduced to Luxembourg in 1919.

Parliamentary elections

Parliamentary elections are held every five years. The current composition of the Chamber of Deputies was elected on 14 October 2018. The next parliamentary elections are due to take place on 8 October 2023. The people of Luxembourg elect the 60 members of the Chamber of Deputies by universal suffrage, in accordance with the rules on proportional representation.

For parliamentary elections, the country is divided into four electoral constituencies, with a different number of deputies to be elected in each one:

  • South: 23 deputies
  • Centre: 21 deputies
  • North: 9 deputies
  • East: 7 deputies

After the official results have been announced, the Grand Duke typically invites the winner of the election to form a government, which is then presented and sworn in by the Grand Duke.

Who can participate in the elections?

To be eligible to vote, you must:

  • be at least 18 years old on the day of the election;
  • be of Luxembourgish nationality;
  • possess full civil and political rights.

In addition, those wishing to stand as candidates must reside in Luxembourg and have joined a list. A candidate can form a list together with other candidates, or they can run independently with their own list.

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Citizen participation

Municipal elections

In Luxembourg, municipal councils are elected directly by the inhabitants of each municipality every six years. They consist of a mayor, two or more aldermen and several councillors. The exact number of aldermen and councillors depends on the number of inhabitants.

There are two different electoral procedures in Luxembourg:

  • Municipalities with fewer than 3,000 inhabitants use the system of majority (relative majority system), in which voters cast their votes by ticking the box next to the name of their chosen candidates.
  • Municipalities with more than 3,000 inhabitants use the proportional representation system (list voting system), in which voters can cast up to two votes for individual candidates or vote for an entire list.

The next municipal elections will take place in 2029.

Who can vote?

Persons can participate in their local municipal elections if they:

  • are at least 18 years old on the day of the election;
  • possess full civil and political rights.

Foreign nationals can also participate in the elections under certain conditions.

Both Luxembourgish and non-Luxembourgish citizens can stand for election in their local municipality, but specific procedures must be followed in both cases.

In municipal elections, voting is also compulsory for everyone on the electoral roll.

Electoral constituencies and municipalities in Luxembourg

European elections

Every five years, Luxembourgers elect, by direct universal suffrage, six representatives of Luxembourg to the European Parliament. For European elections, Luxembourg constitutes a single electoral constituency. The last European elections were held on 26 June 2019, and the next ones will take place in 2024.

More information about the procedures can be found on Guichet.lu, Luxembourg’s online administrative portal.

National referendums

A referendum is a direct democratic tool that involves all registered voters being called upon to vote for or against a proposal presented to them. For referendum purposes, the country forms a single electoral constituency. Voting at the referendum is compulsory for all voters registered on the electoral roll for parliamentary elections.

The last national referendum was held on 7 June 2015.

More information about the procedures can be found on Guichet.lu, Luxembourg’s online administrative portal.