Located in the heart of Western Europe, between Belgium, France and Germany, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been an independent state since the Treaty of London of 19 April 1839, concluded between the then great European powers, Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia and Russia on the one hand, an Belgium and the Netherlands on the other hand.
Since 1839, the surface of the Grand Duchy has been 2,586km2 (999 square miles). The total length of its borders is around 350km.
Over the last centuries, the territory of the country was divided three times.
- To the east, the current limits of Luxembourg were determined by the delimitation treaty, concluded on 26 June 1816 in Aachen, between the Netherlands and Prussia.
- South, the boundary of the Grand Duchy with France has been the subject of a treaty concluded in Kortrijk on 28 March 1820 between France and the Netherlands.
- To the west, the limits of Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were fixed by the Treaty of London of 19 April 1839.
Organisation of the Territory
From an administrative point of view, the territory is divided into:
- 12 cantons (Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange-sur-Attert, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz); the cantons do not have an administrative structure. Instead, they serve as territorial units, on the basis of which the electoral constituencies and the administrative districts are defined.
- 105 municipalities
- 4 electoral constituencies (south, centre, east and north);
- 2 judicial districts (Luxembourg, Diekirch) comprising 3 magistrates’ courts (Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Diekirch).
By law, the following municipalities may actually bear the title of city: Diekirch, Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Remich, Rumelange, Vianden and Wiltz.
Luxembourg City is the capital of the Grand Duchy and seat of the government.
Territorial development policy strives to ensure optimal living conditions for all inhabitants of the country, by assuring a harmonious and sustainable development of its regions, by valuing their resources and by maintaining a structural and economic balance between them.
The Ministry of Sustainable Development and Infrastructure has among its missions the territorial development.