Luxembourg is a representative democracy in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with some elements of semi-direct democracy.
As in other countries of the European Union, voting is compulsory act of citizenship. The refusal to vote may be punished by a fine.
The Luxembourg population elects the 60 members of Parliament (Chambre des députés) through a universal, proportional suffrage. Parliamentary elections are held every five years. The last parliamentary elections in the Grand Duchy were held on 20 October 2013. The next parliamentary elections will be held on 14 October 2018.
Every five years, Luxembourgers elect, by direct universal suffrage, six representatives of Luxembourg to the European Parliament. The last European elections took place on 25 May 2014.
During municipal elections, councillors are directly elected every six years by the inhabitants of the municipality entitled to participate in the election. Each Luxembourg municipality has a municipal council and a council of mayor and aldermen. The last municipal elections took place on 8 Octobre 2017.
The Law of 4 February 2005 on the national referendum is the framework law laying down the procedures to be followed for the organisation of a referendum as provided for by the Constitution.
The last national referendum was held on 7 June 2015.
Nationals of other Member States of the European Union
Nationals of other Member States of the European Union residing in the Grand Duchy may be allowed to participate not only in the European elections, but also in municipal elections. In addition, municipal elections are open, subject to certain conditions, to non-EU foreign nationals.