The first known flag was carried by Count William of Luxembourg in 1123. It was barred, i.e.horizontally striped, probably yellow and red.
It is undoubted that since the Middle Ages the three colours red, white and blue were used as seal ligature by the States, which were taken from the colours of the coat of arms.
The Luxembourg flag has been legally protected since 1972.
The chromatic composition of the national flag is laid down in a grand ducal regulation executing the modified law of July 27, 1993.
The Luxembourg flag is composed of red (Pantone 032C), white and blue (Pantone 299C), arranged horizontally.
In order to tell the Luxembourg and Dutch flags apart, a pragmatic solution was adopted: the Dutch blue is ultramarine and the Grand Duchy's blue is sky blue.