Between 1815 and 1890, the kings of the Netherlands ruled the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. First, between 1815 and 1839 as 18th province of the Netherlands. Then, following the Treaty of London of 1839, which gave Luxembourg its actual independence, Luxembourg was ruled by the Dutch king in personal union.
It was not until 1890 that the Grand Duchy received its own ruling house. Indeed, the 1783 family pact of the House of Nassau laid down that the grand ducal crown had to pass to the Nassau-Weilburg branch upon the death of the last male descendant in the Orange-Nassau line. William III of the Netherlands passes away without male heir in 1890.
At 73 years of age, Grand Duke Adolphe thus becomes the founder of the national dynasty of Luxembourg in 1890. Since then, his direct descendants have succeeded each other on the throne.
|Sovereign||Sovereigns of the Grand Duchy from 1815 to the present day||Dynastic branch|
|Henry of the Netherlands||Lieutenant-Representative of the Grand Duke from 1850 to 1879||Orange-Nassau|
|Duke Adolf of Nassau||1890-1905||Nassau-Weilburg|
(Source: About… the grand ducal family)