Fischbach domain is one of the oldest in Luxembourg and appears to date back to property derived from Echternach Abbey. Its first known lord, Udo of Fischbach, is mentioned in 1050.
Like Berg Castle, it had many owners and underwent many alterations, particularly after being set on fire by the Poles of the army of Duke François of Lorraine in 1635.
In 1850, King William II acquired the estate, and ordered the demolition of the majority of the industrial structures that had been added when the previous owner, industrialist Auguste Garnier, had granted ownership of the property to the company Société anonyme belge des hauts fourneaux.
In 1884, Fischbach Castle was acquired by Duke Adolf of Nassau. Ever since his death in 1905, Fischbach has been the private property of the grand-ducal family.
During the Second World War, the Nazis turned the castle into a rest home for artists, calling it 'Künstlerheim Fischbach'. Much of its furniture and works of art were looted.
From 1945 onwards, and until the end of her days, Grand Duchess Charlotte lived in Fischbach Castle, which became her favourite residence.
In 1987, it became the home of the hereditary grand-ducal couple, who lived there for 15 years.
In the summer of 2002, it was the turn of TRH Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte to take up residence. Since the death of HRH Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte in January 2005, HRH Grand Duke Jean lives there by himself.