The first record of a lord of Berg(he) dates from 1311. Berg Castle frequently changed hands until King-Grand Duke William II purchased the estate from Baron Claude du Pasquier in 1845.
During the reign of William III, the castle underwent many alterations in the neo-Gothic style.
In 1891, the private estates of the king became the property of Grand Duke Adolf. It was during this year that the Hereditary Grand Duke William IV moved into Berg Castle, where six daughters were to be born from his marriage to Infanta Marie-Anne of Bragance.
Upon his accession to the throne, William IV had the old castle demolished and replaced with a building better suited to the needs of the day. The plans were drawn up by Munich architect Max Ostenrieder and carried out by Luxembourg architect Pierre Funck-Eydt. Work started in 1907 and was completed in 1911.
Grand Duchesses Marie-Adélaïde and Charlotte resided there during their successive reigns.
The Luxembourg state acquired the castle in 1934 and made it available for use by the grand ducal family.
During the Second World War, the Nazis established an elite school for young girls in the castle. The alterations they imposed caused a great deal of damage and, similarly to the grand-ducal palace, its furniture and many works of art were plundered.
The 1948 revision of the Constitution identified Berg Castle as the home of the Grand Duke. The restoration work carried out after the war saw the Grand Duchess Charlotte and her family take up residence in Fischbach Castle until 1964.
That year, upon completion of the restoration work, Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte returned to Berg Castle with their children.
In the summer of 2002, TRH Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte left the castle after 38 years to take up residence in Fischbach. In turn, the new grand-ducal couple, Henri and Maria Teresa, and their children moved to Berg Castle, residence of the reigning grand duke, as foreseen by the Constitution.