Total population: 602.005 inhabitants (1 January 2018)
Population density: 215 inhabitants per square kilometre (2014)
Demographic growth: 0.23%
Life expectancy: 80.2 for men, 84.8 for women (2013)
Population census: every ten years, the last census having taken place in February 2011
Religion: most of the population is Roman Catholic. The Grand Duchy has been a diocese since 1870 and an archbishopric since 1988. The most important pilgrimages are the 'Oktav', the hopping procession of Echternach (on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List), and the pilgrimage to Our Lady of Fatima in Wiltz. An agreement between the Luxembourgish government and the religious communities signed in January 2015 is going to reform the relationship between the state and these communities.
Proportion of Luxembourg nationals in the total population: 52,1% (1 January 2018)
Proportion of foreigners: 47,9% (1 January 2018). Foreigners of more than 170 nationalities live in the Grand Duchy.
Population and nationality
Proportion of foreigners in the total population (1 January 2018)
- Portuguese: 16,0%
- French: 7,6%
- Italians: 3.6%
- Belgians: 3.4%
- Germans: 2.2%
Most of the foreigners living in the Grand Duchy are nationals of another European Union country (85%).
Legislation on nationality: Law of 23 October 2008 on Luxembourg nationality
Under the Law of 23 October 2008 on Luxembourg nationality, the latter may be acquired by birth, by full or simple adoption, or by naturalisation. The law applies the principle of dual nationality. Applicants for Luxembourg nationality are no longer required to relinquish their original nationality.
- For more information read our page on Luxembourg nationality.
Municipalities with the largest populations (2019)
- Luxembourg: 119.214
- Esch-sur-Alzette: 35.040
- Differdange: 26.193
- Dudelange: 20.869
Population and employment
Rate of foreign nationals in the active population: 71% (45% cross-border employees and 26% resident foreigners)
Cross-border employees: incoming cross-border employees*: 167,000 (February 2015); outgoing resident employees*: 11,500 (February 2015); the proportion of cross-border workers increased from 3% in 1961 to 44% in 2010; nearly half of all the cross-border employees come from France.
* seasonally adjusted data
(Source: Statec, Statistics portal)